In the systems approach to inquiry I’ve been pursuing, all specifications, state descriptions, or values of variables come in three modalities: expected, intended, and actually observed.
- A difference between expectation and observation is accounted as a “surprise” and calls for an explanation.
- A difference between intention and observation is accounted as a “problem” and calls for a plan of action.
There’s more discussion in the following article and section.
cc: Ontolog Forum