It’s the usual thing to say scientific inquiry involves a combination of deductive and inductive reasoning. A slightly different, 3-phase model, going back to Aristotle and revived by Charles S. Peirce, analyzes the process producing knowledge into abductive, deductive, and inductive stages. Abductive inference is used to generate a hypothesis, deduction is used to derive its logical consequences, and inductive reasoning is how we test the hypothesis against experimental observations.
Here’s a few thoughts toward the design of software platforms for integrating these three components of inquiry. (Also research and teaching.)