My interest in this theme of Leibniz goes back to a time when I began exploring generalized measures of determination and qualitative analogues of differential calculus — doctrines of absolute determinism or predestination had long ago loosened their hold on my mind — but a comment on my recent posting prompts me to add the following clarification.
I tend to read theological visions metaphorically, more in axiological and teleological veins. So I take Leibniz as presenting an ideal limit of a perfect information cybernetic system — how the universe would look to an ideal observer, from a God’s Eye View. I do not know if it is possible to imagine such a point of view within the bounds of logic alone, but Leibniz appears to believe God at least can have his cake and eat it, too, as indicated by the follow passage.
There must therefore be no doubt that effects follow their causes determinately, in spite of contingency and even of freedom, which nevertheless exist together with certainty or determination.
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