## Praeclarum Theorema

### Introduction

The praeclarum theorema, or splendid theorem, is a theorem of propositional calculus noted and named by G.W. Leibniz, who stated and proved it in the following manner.

If a is b and d is c, then ad will be bc.
This is a fine theorem, which is proved in this way:
a is b, therefore ad is bd (by what precedes),
d is c, therefore bd is bc (again by what precedes),
ad is bd, and bd is bc, therefore ad is bc.  Q.E.D.

— Leibniz • Logical Papers, p. 41.

Expressed in contemporary logical notation, the theorem may be written as follows. $((a \Rightarrow b) \land (d \Rightarrow c)) \Rightarrow ((a \land d) \Rightarrow (b \land c))$

Expressed as a logical graph under the existential interpretation, the theorem takes the shape of the following formal equivalence or propositional equation. And here’s a neat proof of that nice theorem — The steps of the proof are replayed in the following animation. ### Reference

• Leibniz, Gottfried W. (1679–1686?), “Addenda to the Specimen of the Universal Calculus”, pp. 40–46 in G.H.R. Parkinson (ed., trans., 1966), Leibniz : Logical Papers, Oxford University Press, London, UK.