Measurement is an extension of perception. Measurement gives us data about an object system the way perception gives us percepts, which we may consider just a species of data.
If we ask when we first became self-conscious about this whole process of perception and measurement, I don’t know, but Aristotle broke ground in a very articulate way with his treatise On Interpretation. Sense data are impressions on the mind and they have their consensual, communicable derivatives in spoken and written signs. This triple interaction among objects, ideas, and signs is the cornerstone of our contemporary theories of signs, collectively known as semiotics.